Category Archives: 6. Vocabulary I

Sentences with ‘até’

‘Até’ is a vastly used word, assuming the role of a preposition or an adverb. Below you can find a list of sentences approaching some most common meanings of ‘até’. Enjoy and feel free to ask any questions!

Most common meanings: until, to, before, even, also…

Até amanhã!
Until tomorrow!

Até que a morte nos separe.
Until death does us apart.

Consigo correr até 6 quilômetros.
I can run up to 6 kilometers.

Sigo você até o fim do mundo.
I follow you to the end of the world.

Até que é bonito.
~ You can say it’s beautiful.

Ele come de tudo, até pedra.
He eats everything, even rocks.

Já morei até em Madagascar.
I have lived even in Madagascar.

Ontem fui até a sua casa, mas você não estava.
Yesterday I went to your house, but you weren’t home.

Ela comeu até passar mal.
She ate until feeling sick.

Nós cantamos até a praia.
We sang all the way to the beach.

Até doente, ele não para quieto.
Even sick, he doesn’t hold still.

 

I hope this list can help you understand and communicate a little better in Portuguese.
Good study! 🙂

 

Negative forms: NÃO

NÃO = NO or NOT

Negative sentences are quite easy to write. In most cases, all you need to do is place ‘não’ before the verb. For example:

Eu sou professora de inglês.
I am an English teacher. 
*Remember we don’t use articles when telling one’s profession. You can review this topic here.

Eu NÃO sou professora de inglês.
I am not an English teacher. 
In this case, our verb is ‘sou’ and ‘não’ is put right before it.

Let’s take a look at some other examples so I can convince you on how easy it really is.

Políticos falam a verdade.
Politicians speak the truth. (HA!)
Políticos NÃO falam a verdade.
Politicians do not speak the truth. 

NÃO fume aqui.
Do not smoke here.

exceções para esta regra.
There are exceptions to this rule.
NÃO exceções para esta regra.
There aren’t exceptions to this rule.
*You can learn or review how to use ‘há’ for there is/are here.

Other negative words

NUNCA = never

Placed before the verb, just like ‘não’.

Políticos NÃO falam a verdade.
Politicians do not speak the truth.
Políticos NUNCA falam a verdade.
Politicians never speak the truth.

Ela SEMPRE acorda cedo aos sábados.
She always wake-up early on Saturdays.
Ela NUNCA acorda cedo aos sábados.
She never wakes up early on Saturdays.

NEM (not even, neither, nor)

Eu NEM consegui comprar o que eu queria.
I didn’t even get to buy what I wanted.

Patrícia não gosta de salada NEM de feijão.
Patricia likes neither salad nor beans.

NEM um NEM outro é o caminho certo.
Neither one nor the other is the right way.

DE MODO ALGUM = DE JEITO NENHUM = DE FORMA NENHUMA (no way, not at all, never)

Meu computador não funciona DE JEITO NENHUM.
My computer doesn’t work at all.

O juiz não vai mudar sua decisão DE MODO ALGUM.
No way the judge is going to change his decision.

DE FORMA NENHUMA nós vamos aceitar essas condições.
In any way we are going to accept these conditions.
*You can learn how to use ‘ir’ (to go) to talk about the future here.

It can also be used in reply to thank you.
– Obrigado (a).
Thank you.
De modo algum!
Not at all.

 

Hope it was useful for you! Best wishes in your journey learning Portuguese.
Any questions please use the comments section or my social media channels.
Aimée

 

Irregular verb: IR (to go)

Verb to go in Portuguese is another irregular verb, even its radical changes. So let’s take a look at the conjugation:

Eu vou
Tu vais
Ele vai
Nós vamos
Eles vão

Como vai?

You can use this verb to ask how things are going, like in ‘how is it going?’.

Como vai?
How are you?
Como vai o trabalho?
How is work?
Como vão as crianças?
How are the children?

Ir para algum lugar

You can use this verb to say that someone or something goes somewhere. The preposition ‘para’ (to) should be used then.

Ir para algum lugar.
Go somewhere.
Ela vai para o trabalho todas as manhãs.
She goes to work every morning.
Eu vou para a festa de aniversário.
I am going to the birthday party.

Ir fazer alguma coisa

You can also use this verb to indicate future in a similar structure to: ‘going to’ + verb in the infinitive.

Ir fazer alguma coisa. 
Going to do something.
Ele vai comer churrasco amanhã.
He is going to eat barbecue tomorrow.
Eles vão informar a decisão.
They are going to inform the decision.
Você vai para casa hoje?
Are you going home today?

 

Hope you it was useful for you! 
See you.

Verb to be – part 4 of 4

Take a few minutes to read the first three parts of this lesson here, here and here in case you haven’t yet.

We talked about how to use verb ‘estar’ to say emotions and conditions, also current activities and locations; and how to use verb ‘ser’ to describe things and talk about nationalities. At this moment, you are ready to be introduced to other interrogative words and use verb ‘ser’ and all its potential

WHAT AND WHICH

What and which are equivalent to ‘o que’ and ‘qual’ (almost always) respectively.

O que

  • Comes before a noun or a verb
  • Can NOT be used referring to people, only things
  • Wide or infinite options

O que é isso?
What is that?

O que são aquelas coisas amarelas?
What are those yellow things?

O que você está comendo?
What are you eating?

O que você quer?
What do you want?

Qual

  • Many times accompanies the verb ‘ser’
  • Can be used referring to people or things
  • Supposes a selection, choose an option among others
  • Can be followed by ‘dos’ (of the), ‘das’ (of the), ‘destes’ (of these), ‘destas’ (of these), ‘daqueles’ (of those), ‘daquelas’ (of those).

Qual é o seu nome?
What is your name?

Qual é o nome daquele filme?
What is the title of that movie?

Qual é a sua idade?
What is your age?

Qual das crianças é o seu filho?
Which of the children is your son?
*Alternative: Qual criança é o seu filho? Which child is your son?

Qual destas camisas é a mais bonita?
Which of these shirts is the most beautiful?
*Alternative: Qual camisa é a mais bonita? Which shirt is the most beautiful?

‘Qual’ can also be plural and the answer will be in the plural as well:

Quais dos países europeus são os seus favoritos?
Which of the european countries are you favorite?
*Alternative: Quais países europeus são os seus favoritos? Which european country is your favorite?

Quais daquelas bolsas são suas?
Which of those bags are yours?
*Alternative: Quais bolsas são suas? Which bags are yours?

WHO

Asking for someone’s identity:
[quem]>>[é]>>[noun + complement]

Quem é você?
Who are you?

Quem são aqueles homens?
Who are those men?

Quem são estas pessoas?
Who are these people?

Asking for the subject of a verb:
[quem]>>[verb]>>[noun + complement]

Quem está em casa?
Who is home?

Quem está comendo na cozinha?
Who is eating in the kitchen?

Quem cozinha tão bem assim?
Who cooks so well like this?

NOTE: I am avoiding verbs not discussed in these verb to be lessons, but is perfectly possible and correct to use this structures with different verbs and tenses. For example, ‘Quem fez essa comida deliciosa?‘, which means ‘Who cooked this delicious food?’.

Asking for the ownership
[de quem]>>[ser]>>[noun]

De quem é este carro?
Whose car is this?

De quem é a culpa?
Whose fault is it?

HOW MANY

[quantos]>>[noun]>>[verb]>>[complement is optional]

Quantos morangos?
How many strawberries?

Quantos alunos são meninas?
How many students are girls?

Quantos países são maiores que o Brasil?
How many countries are bigger than Brazil?

Quantas dessas histórias são verdadeiras?
How many of these stories are true?

Quantas destas frutas podemos levar?
How many of these fruits can we take?

NOTE: Besides ‘Qual é a sua idade?’, it’s possible to ask someone’s age saying ‘Quantos anos você tem’, that literally means ‘How many years do you have?’.

HOW MUCH

Asking for price:
[quanto]>>[ser]>>[noun]

Quanto é um quilo de arroz?
How much is one kilo of rice?
*Alternative: Quanto custa um quilo de arroz? How much does one kilo of rice cost?

Exclamation
[quanto/quanta]>>[noun]

Quanto pessimismo!
So much pessimism!

Quanta comida!
So much food!

Asking for quantity of uncountable things:
[quanto(s)/quanta(s)]>>[noun]>>[verb]>>[noun]

Quanto trabalho será necessário?
How much more work will be necessary?

Quantas tortas estão prontas?
How many pies are ready?

WHAT TIME IS IT?

Let’s talk about time. The logic here is very similar to English.
[ser]>>[number]>>[hora(s)]>>[e]>>[minuto(s)]

> Learn the numbers here <

Verb ‘ser’ agree in number with the hour digit
1:00 É uma hora. It’s one o’clock.
3:00 São três horas. It’s three o’clock.

Periods of day
06:00 São seis horas da manhã. It’s six in the morning.
16:00 São doze horas da tarde. (É meio-dia) It’s twelve in the afternoon. (It’s midday.)
19:00 São sete horas da noite. It’s seven in the night.
12:00 São doze horas da noite. (É meia-noite) It’s twelve in the night. (It’s midnight.)
01:00 É uma hora da manhã. It’s one in the morning.

Minutes
06:10
São seis horas e dez minutos. It’s six hours and ten minutes.
São seis e dez. It’s six ten.
06:15
São seis horas e quinze minutos. It’s six hours and fifteen minutes.
São seis e quinze. It’s six fifteen.
06:30
São seis horas e trinta minutos. It’s six hours and thirty minutes.
São seis e meia. It’s six thirty.
06:45
São seis horas e quarenta e cinco minutos. Its six hours and forty-five minutes.
São quinze para as sete. It’s fifteen to seven.

 

Hope you learned a lot and keep coming back for more!
See you.

 

 

 

 

Verb to be – part 3 of 4

We started talking about verb to be here. Take a few minutes to read the first and second parts of this lesson in case you haven’t yet.

We talked about how to use verb ‘estar’ to say emotions and conditions, also current activities and locations. Now we are ready to move on to the next verb: ‘ser’.

First of all,

Conjugation

Verb ‘ser’ is, like ‘estar’, irregular and won’t follow the rule for second conjugation verbs. No more chatting then!

Eu sou
Tu és
Ele/Ela/Você é
Nós somos
Eles/Vocês são

You can notice that the radical is the expected ‘s-‘ for 1st persons singular (eu) and plural (nós) and 3rd person plural(eles); however it changes for 2nd and 3rd person singular. Comparing to ‘estar’, which keeps the radical ‘est-‘, it’s possible to trace a parallel with verb ‘estar’:

ESTAR <> SER
Eu estou <> Eu sou
Tu estás <> Tu és
Ele/Ela/Você está <> Ele/Ela/Você é
Nós estamos <> Nós somos
Eles/Vocês estão <> Eles/Vocês são

NOTE: The usual conjugation for the 1st person singular (eu) in the present tense is done by adding ‘-o’ to the radical. Some irregular verbs though will have ‘-ou’ added to their radicals. For example: ‘ir’ (eu vou – I go) and ‘dar’ (eu dou – I give). I’ll make a post for these two later on, for now let’s focus on ‘ser’, ok?

Descriptions

‘Ser’ main use is to describe things, people and places. But unlike ‘estar’ which describes temporary circumstances and conditions, ‘ser’ describes long term circumstances and the nature of what is being described. Confusing? Let’s move on to some examples:

Eu estou feliz. I am happy right now in the current circumstances.
Eu sou feliz. I am happy in a consistent manner, it’s part of who I am: a happy person.

> Learn about verb ‘estar’ here <

I hope the difference is clear.
The structure with ‘ser’ in the present tense is like this:
[subject]>>[ser]>>[adjective or noun]

This adjective or noun can be…

… a personality trait:

  • Eu sou inteligente. I am intelligent.
  • Ela é muito charmosa. She is very charming.
  • Eles são educados. They are polite.
  • Vocês são um pouco estranhos. You (pl.) are a little strange.

… a profession:

  • Ela é médica. She is a doctor.
  • Eles são advogados. They are lawyers.
  • Vocês são professores. You (pl.) are professors.
  • Eu sou empreendedor. I am an entrepreneur.
    • NOTE: there are NO articles between ‘ser’ and the noun when stating someone’s profession.

… a relationship:

  • Nós somos amigos. We are friends.
  • Ela é minha namorada. She is my girlfriend.
  • Vocês são casados ou solteiros? Are you (pl.) married or single?
  • Eles são parentes. They are relatives.

… quantity adjectives:

  • Eles são muitos. They are many.
  • Nós somos poucos. We are few.

… other adjectives:

  • O filme é interessante. The movie is interesting.
  • A menina é simpática. The girl is friendly.
  • Minha família é grande e unida. My family is big and united.
  • A modelo é magra e bonita. The model is thin and beautiful.
  • O carro é novo. The car is new.

How to ask for a description

If you want want to ask someone for a description, you start with the interrogative word ‘como’, followed by the ver ‘ser’ and a noun.

Como é o Brasil?
How is Brazil?

Como é o seu vestido?
How is your dress?

Como é o seu namorado novo?
How is your new boyfriend?

Como são os brasileiros?
How are Brazilian people?

Como são as ruas em Praga?
How are the streets in Prague?

Como é viajar o mundo?
How is it to travel the world?
*In this case, we have a verb in the infinitive instead of a noun, so the goal is to get an impression about the activity expressed by it (to travel).


If what you are asking for is less a quality and more a way of doing something, you will still use the interrogative word ‘como’, but in this case there is no need for ‘ser’. Like this:

[como]>>[subject]>>[verb in the present tense]>>[complement]

Como eu aprendo português? (aprender)
How do I learn Portuguese? (to learn)

Como ele cozinha o arroz? (cozinhar)
How does he cook the rice? (to cook)

> You can check about regular verbs conjugation here <


Origin and nationality

These two ideas in mainly expressed in English with support of the preposition ‘from’. In Portuguese, we have: ‘de’.

The question

De onde você é?
De – preposition of origin (= from)
Onde – interrogative word (=where)
Você – you (= tu)
É – 3rd person singular conjugation of ‘ser’ in the present tense

#tbt If you remember, we saw a similar question here: Onde você está? (Where are you?). By adding the preposition ‘de’ and using verb ‘ser’ instead of ‘estar’, the meaning changes to ‘where are you from?‘.

[de onde]>>[subject]>>[ser]
De onde ele é? Where is he from?
De onde vocês são? Where are you (pl.) from?
De onde este artista é? Where is this artist from?

The answer

Ele é daqui.
He is from here.

Daqui = preposition ‘de’ (from) + aqui (here)

Vocês são dos Estados Unidos.
You (pl.) are from the United States.

Este artista é de Barcelona.
This artist is from Barcelona.

Some prepositions, like ‘de’ and ’em’, when put next to an article, incorporate them. If you are not familiar with articles yet check this previous post. So the forms ‘de’ can assume when combined with articles are:

De + a = da (feminine definite)
De + o = do (masculine definite)
De + uma = duma (feminine indefinite)
De + um = dum (masculine indefinite)

The tricky part is there are no clear rules about which article goes with each city or country or even if there should be one or not. I made a list for you, with the nationalities in the masculine and feminine forms and the country with the ‘de’ + article.

Countries that goes with masculine articles

Brasileiro/Brasileira = do Brasil (Brazil)
Americano/Americana = dos Estados Unidos (United Stated)
Peruano/Peruana = do Peru
Uruguaio/Uruguaia = do Uruguai
Britânico/Britânica = do Reino Unido (United Kingdom)
Canadense = do Canadá (Canada)
Japonês/Japonesa = do Japão (Japan)
Vietnamita = do Vietnam/Vietnã
Cambojano/Cambojana = do Camboja
Equatoriano/Equatoriana = do Equador
Mexicano/Mexicana = do México (Mexico)

If you want to say from which region of a country the person is from, it will be also masculine.
[do]>>[region]>>[country]
Do norte do Brasil.
Do sul do Japão.
Do leste do Peru.
Do oeste do Canadá.

Other directions:
Sudeste
Sudoeste
Nordeste
Noroeste

Countries that goes with feminine article

Espanhol/Espanhola – da Espanha (Spain)
Italiano/Italiana – da Itália (Italy)
Alemão/Alemã – da Alemanha (Germany)
Francês/Francesa – da França (France)
Irlandês/Irlandesa – da Irlanda (Ireland)
Inglês/Inglesa – da Inglaterra (England)
Escocês/Escocesa – da Escócia (Scotland)
Austríaco/Austríaca – da Áustria (Austria)
Suíço/Suíça – da Suíça (Switzerland)
Húngaro/Húngara – da Hungria (Hungary)
Russo/Russa – da Rússia (Russia)
Chinês/Chinesa – da China
Coreano/Coreana – da Coréia (Korea)
Indiano/Indiana – da Índia (India)
Australiano/Australiano – da Austrália (Australia)
Neozelandês/Neozelandesa – da Nova Zelândia (New Zealand)
Sul-africano/Sul-africana – da África do Sul (South Africa)
Polonês/Polonesa – da Polônia (Poland)
Ucraniano/Ucraniana – da Ucrânia (Ukraine)
Argentino/Argentino – da Argentina

NOTE: As you can notice, most european countries are matched with the feminine article, exceptions made for Reino Unido (masculine), Luxemburg (absent) and Portugal (absent).

Countries that are not preceded by an article

Português/Portuguesa – de Portugal
Luxemburguês/Luxemburguesa – de Luxemburgo (Luxemburg)
Costarriquenho/Costarriquenha – de Costa Rica
Israelense – de Israel
Singapuriano – de Singapura
Angolano/Angolana – de Angola
Moçambicano/Moçambicana – de Moçambique (Mozambique)

Hope you learned a lot a come back for more!

See you.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verb to be 1/4

Welcome to my VERB TO BE series!
The meanings included in the verb ‘to be’ is expressed in Portuguese by two independent verbs: ‘ser’ and ‘estar’. On the four posts about verb to be, a complete yet simple analysis of these verbs will be presented.

Topics of Verb to be 1/4:

Verb ‘estar’:
1) expressing current feeling/condition
2) present continuous.

If you are not familiar with personal pronouns and other basic Portuguese vocabulary, you can learn it here.

Shall we start? 🙂

Conjugation!

‘Estar’ is an irregular verb, therefore won’t follow the rules for regular verbs mentioned here.

Eu estou
I am
Tu estás
You are
Ele/Ela está (Você está)*
He/she/is (You are)*
Nós estamos
We are
Eles/Elas/Vocês estão
They/You(pl.) are

‘Estar’ is a descriptive verb and associated with temporary circumstances and states such as one’s mood or physical conditions; also locations and ongoing activities.

How are you?

Como você está?
Como – interrogative pronoun; how
Você – you (=tu)
Está – 3rd person singular of ‘estar’ conjugated in the present tense

Observing the question structure, we have:
Question: [inter. pronoun]>>[noun]>>[estar]
The answer to this question will always be an adjective or equivalent. When you ask ‘como está?’ something, you are asking for the current status of it.
Answer: [noun]>>[estar]>>[adjective]
Eu estou doente.
I am sick.

Moving on to some…

Examples

Q. Como você está hoje?
How are you today?
A. Eu estou feliz hoje.
I am happy today.

Q. Como ele está ultimamente?
How is he lately?
A. Ele está preocupado com o comportamento do seu filho.
He is worried with his son’s behavior.

Q. Como vocês estão?
How are you (pl.)?
A. Nós estamos animados para a festa.
We are excited to the party.

Ela está afim de comer pizza.
She is in the mood for eating pizza.

O apartamento está em boas condições.
The apartment is in good conditions.

What are you doing?

The second use of this verb we are going to discuss is as a auxiliar verb in the present continuous structure.

What are you doing?
O que você está fazendo?
O que – interrogative pronoun (what)
Você – you (=tu)
Está – 3rd person singular of ‘estar’ conjugated in the present tense
Fazendo – gerund form of the verb ‘fazer’ (=to do)

NOTE: The gerund of a verb goes like this:

  1. Verb in the infinitive;
  2. Replace the stem -ar, -er or -ir for -ando, -endo or -indo, respectively.
  3. Examples: falar >> falando; cantar >> cantando; comer >> comendo; beber >> bebendo; abrir >> abrindo; ouvir >> ouvindo.

Question: [inter. pronoun]>>[noun]>>[estar]>>[verb+ing]

O que você está comendo?
What are you eating?

O que eles estão comprando?
What are they buying?

The expected answers to these questions would be like this:
Answer: [estar]>>[verb+ing]>>[complement]

Eu estou comendo bolo.
I am eating cake.

Eles estão comprando roupas.
They are buying clothes

You can continue learning about verb to be HERE.

Best wishes on your journey learning Portuguese. 
Aimée

Relacionamentos – Relationships

This post is for those in love… Nah, joke. In fact, it’s about relationship vocabulary. How to express your current situation and some common sentences. Hope it’s useful for you. Let’s start!

Marital status

  • Solteiro, solteira (Single)
    • Sou/estou solteiro. I am single.
  • Namorando (dating)
    • Estou namorando uma dançarina. I am dating a dancer.
    • Estão namorando há 2 anos. It’s been 2 years they are dating.
    • Esta é minha namorada. This is my girlfriend.
    • Eles são namorados. They are boyfriend and girlfriend.
  • Noivo, noiva (engaged)
    • Minha família está muito feliz com o nosso noivado. My family is very happy with our engagement.
    • A noiva entrou na igreja toda de branco. The bride entered the church all dressed in white.
  • Casado, casada (married)
    • Eu sou casado e tenho filhos. I am married and have children.
    • A vida de casada não é fácil. Married life is not easy.
  • Divorciado, divorciada (divorced)
    • Pedi o divórcio depois do meu marido me trair. I asked for the divorce after my husband cheated on me.
    • Eu sou divorciada há 2 anos. It’s been two years I am divorced.
  • Viúvo, viúva (widow)
    • Fiquei viúvo quando minha esposa morreu num acidente de carro. I became a widow when my wife died in a car accident.
    • Ele morreu e deixou uma viúva e cinco filhos. He died and left a widow and five children.
    • Pessoas viúvas podem se tornar muito solitárias. Widows can become very lonely.

Algumas frases comuns para pessoas que estão em um relacionamento

Some common sentences for people who are in a relationship

Quando você chega?
When do you arrive?

Vamos viajar nesse fim de semana!
Let’s travel this weekend!

Estou com saudades. Quero te ver.
I miss you. I want to see you.

Você pode passar no mercado?
Can you stop by the market?

Vamos cozinhar alguma coisa juntos hoje à noite.
Let’s cook something together tonight.

Flertando
Flirting

Starting with the obvious…

Oi, meu nome é [name].
Hi, my name is [name].

Posso te pagar uma bebida?
Can I buy you a drink?

Você é linda.
You are beautiful.

Precisa de ajuda?
Do you need help?

Adoro o seu sorriso/olhar.
I love your smile/eyes.

Quero te conhecer melhor.
I want to know you better.

Quando vamos nos ver de novo?
When are we going to meet again?

Qual é o seu telefone?
What is your phone number?

Eu gosto muito de você.
I like you very much.

É divertido estar com você.
It’s fun to be with you.

Outras expressões
Other expressions

Relacionamento à distância
Distance relationship

Estou saindo com alguém.
Estou ficando com alguém.
I am seeing someone. (Not official)

Temos muito em comum.
We have a lot in common.

Amor à primeira vista.
Love at first sight.

Relacionamento saudável.
Healthy relationship.

Relacionamento aberto.
Open relationship.

Estou apaixonado/apaixonada.
I am in love.

Altos e baixos.
Ups and downs.

Próximo passo.
Next step.

Well, that’s it. If you want to know more, just ask me in the comments section.

Hope you learned a lot and come back for more!

See you.