Category Archives: Beginner I

Sentences with ‘até’

‘Até’ is a vastly used word, assuming the role of a preposition or an adverb. Below you can find a list of sentences approaching some most common meanings of ‘até’. Enjoy and feel free to ask any questions!

Most common meanings: until, to, before, even, also…

Até amanhã!
Until tomorrow!

Até que a morte nos separe.
Until death does us apart.

Consigo correr até 6 quilômetros.
I can run up to 6 kilometers.

Sigo você até o fim do mundo.
I follow you to the end of the world.

Até que é bonito.
~ You can say it’s beautiful.

Ele come de tudo, até pedra.
He eats everything, even rocks.

Já morei até em Madagascar.
I have lived even in Madagascar.

Ontem fui até a sua casa, mas você não estava.
Yesterday I went to your house, but you weren’t home.

Ela comeu até passar mal.
She ate until feeling sick.

Nós cantamos até a praia.
We sang all the way to the beach.

Até doente, ele não para quieto.
Even sick, he doesn’t hold still.

 

I hope this list can help you understand and communicate a little better in Portuguese.
Good study! 🙂

 

Hyphen and Prefixes

One of the most frequent doubts concerning Portuguese grammar is when to add the hyphen to a word. It’s natural this subject raises doubt, especially after New Orthographic Agreement. So today’s post will be dedicated to explaining the hyphen uses and help you write in Portuguese with extra confidence. Let’s also take the opportunity to talk about the prefixes’ meanings.

1st and universal rule

a) An encounter of same letters – hyphen.
b) An encounter of different letters – no hyphen.

Anti-inflamatório (‘anti-‘: opposition; contrary action)
Micro-ondas (‘micro-‘: very small; 10-6)
Contra-ataque (‘contra-‘: opposition)
Anteontem (‘ante-‘: prior)
Autoaprendizagem (‘auto-‘: oneself)
Infraestrutura (‘infra-‘: inferiority; base)

The ‘H’

The hyphen should be employed when any letter and ‘h’ encounter.

Super-homem (‘super-‘: infers special capacity)
Anti-higiênico
Pré-história (‘pré-‘: before the beginning; preparation)
Co-herdeiro* (‘co-‘: concomitance)

The prefixes ‘co-‘, ‘re-‘ and ‘pre-‘

No hyphen should be used.

Coordenação
Reentrada (‘re-‘: repetition; reciprocity)
Preestabelecido

Prefixes that require the hyphen

We should use the hyphen for the following prefixes:
‘pré-‘
‘pós-‘ (posterity)
‘pró-‘ (favorable)
‘ex-‘ (past; previous)
‘sota-‘ (inferior; substitute)
‘soto-‘ (inferior; substitute)
‘vice-‘ (substitute of)

Pré-escolar
Pós-graduação
Pró-governo
Ex-namorado
Sota-piloto
Soto-mestre
Vice-presidente

The ‘r’ and the ‘s’

a) Close to vowels, no hyphen and double.
Suprarrenal (‘supra-‘: superior position; excess)
Minissaia (‘mini-‘: tiny)
Semirreta (‘semi-‘: two parts division)
b) Close to other consonants, hyphen. (Like the universal rule)
Inter-relacionado (‘inter-‘: intermediate position)
Super-resistente
Sub-regiões (‘sub-‘: inferiority; movement from the bottom to top)

 

That is all I’ve got right now, hope it’s useful. Wish you the best on your journey learning Portuguese!
Aimée

 

 

 

Negative forms: NÃO

NÃO = NO or NOT

Negative sentences are quite easy to write. In most cases, all you need to do is place ‘não’ before the verb. For example:

Eu sou professora de inglês.
I am an English teacher. 
*Remember we don’t use articles when telling one’s profession. You can review this topic here.

Eu NÃO sou professora de inglês.
I am not an English teacher. 
In this case, our verb is ‘sou’ and ‘não’ is put right before it.

Let’s take a look at some other examples so I can convince you on how easy it really is.

Políticos falam a verdade.
Politicians speak the truth. (HA!)
Políticos NÃO falam a verdade.
Politicians do not speak the truth. 

NÃO fume aqui.
Do not smoke here.

exceções para esta regra.
There are exceptions to this rule.
NÃO exceções para esta regra.
There aren’t exceptions to this rule.
*You can learn or review how to use ‘há’ for there is/are here.

Other negative words

NUNCA = never

Placed before the verb, just like ‘não’.

Políticos NÃO falam a verdade.
Politicians do not speak the truth.
Políticos NUNCA falam a verdade.
Politicians never speak the truth.

Ela SEMPRE acorda cedo aos sábados.
She always wake-up early on Saturdays.
Ela NUNCA acorda cedo aos sábados.
She never wakes up early on Saturdays.

NEM (not even, neither, nor)

Eu NEM consegui comprar o que eu queria.
I didn’t even get to buy what I wanted.

Patrícia não gosta de salada NEM de feijão.
Patricia likes neither salad nor beans.

NEM um NEM outro é o caminho certo.
Neither one nor the other is the right way.

DE MODO ALGUM = DE JEITO NENHUM = DE FORMA NENHUMA (no way, not at all, never)

Meu computador não funciona DE JEITO NENHUM.
My computer doesn’t work at all.

O juiz não vai mudar sua decisão DE MODO ALGUM.
No way the judge is going to change his decision.

DE FORMA NENHUMA nós vamos aceitar essas condições.
In any way we are going to accept these conditions.
*You can learn how to use ‘ir’ (to go) to talk about the future here.

It can also be used in reply to thank you.
– Obrigado (a).
Thank you.
De modo algum!
Not at all.

 

Hope it was useful for you! Best wishes in your journey learning Portuguese.
Any questions please use the comments section or my social media channels.
Aimée

 

Irregular verb: IR (to go)

Verb to go in Portuguese is another irregular verb, even its radical changes. So let’s take a look at the conjugation:

Eu vou
Tu vais
Ele vai
Nós vamos
Eles vão

Como vai?

You can use this verb to ask how things are going, like in ‘how is it going?’.

Como vai?
How are you?
Como vai o trabalho?
How is work?
Como vão as crianças?
How are the children?

Ir para algum lugar

You can use this verb to say that someone or something goes somewhere. The preposition ‘para’ (to) should be used then.

Ir para algum lugar.
Go somewhere.
Ela vai para o trabalho todas as manhãs.
She goes to work every morning.
Eu vou para a festa de aniversário.
I am going to the birthday party.

Ir fazer alguma coisa

You can also use this verb to indicate future in a similar structure to: ‘going to’ + verb in the infinitive.

Ir fazer alguma coisa. 
Going to do something.
Ele vai comer churrasco amanhã.
He is going to eat barbecue tomorrow.
Eles vão informar a decisão.
They are going to inform the decision.
Você vai para casa hoje?
Are you going home today?

 

Hope you it was useful for you! 
See you.

Plurals of simple nouns

The accurate use of genders and plurals is essential to prevent the ‘funny’ sounding sentences of coming out of your mouth.
I talk about genders on this article.

General rules for plurals:

  • Add ‘-s’ to nouns ending in vowels.
  • Add ‘-es’ to nouns ending in consonants.

But, of course, this is not just ANY language! So here it comes the exceptions. (I’m sorry.)

  1. Nouns ending in ‘-s’, of which the tonic syllable is not the latter, do NOT change.
    • Lápis (pencil)
    • Pires (saucer)
    • Atlas (atlas)
    • Ônibus (bus)
  2. Words ending in ‘-l’ goes to plural adding ‘-is’.
    • Metal (metal) – metais
    • Total (total) – totais
    • Papel (paper) – papéis
    • Anel (ring) – anéis
    • Azul (blue) – azuis
    • Sol (sun) – sóis
      • NOTE: nouns ending in ‘-il’ goes to plural adding ‘-is’.
        • Barril (barrel) – barris
        • Anil (indigo) – anis
        • Quadril (hip) – quadris
        • Perfil (profile) – perfis
  3. Words ending in ‘-ão’ mostly goes to plural adding ‘-ões’.
    • Coração (heart) – corações
    • Razão (motive) – razões
    • Balão (balloon) – balões
      • Exceptions ending in ‘-ães’.
        • Pão (bread) – pães
        • Cão (dog) – cães
        • Capitão (captain) – capitães
        • Alemão (German) – alemães
        • Guardião (guardian) – guardiães
      • Exceptions ending in ‘-ãos’.
        • Irmão (brother) – irmãos
        • Cristão (christian) – cristãos
        • Mão (hand) – mãos
        • Grão (grain) – grãos
        • Cidadão (citizen) – cidadãos
        • Vão (gap) – vãos
        • Chão (floor, ground) – chãos
  4. Some nouns have the phoneme of their tonic vowels changed when going to plural. (The featured vowels have a closed sound in the singular form and an open sound in the plural form.)
    • Fogo (fire) – fogos
    • Jogo (game) – jogos
    • Olho (eye) – olhos
    • Osso (bone) – ossos
    • Porco (pig) – porcos
    • Esforço (effort) – esforços
    • Ovo (egg) – ovos
    • Povo (people) – povos
    • Socorro (help) – socorros
    • Porto (port) – portos
    • Corpo (body) – corpos

Best wishes in your journey learning Portuguese. I am happy for the opportunity to be part of it.
Aimée

Genders: masculine or feminine?

In Portuguese, there are two possible genders: masculine and feminine. Gender is a noun feature, and articles, adjectives and pronouns will agree in gender with nouns they complement. However, verbs and adverbs do not vary gender.

This post is about giving you tips and guidelines to identify a noun’s gender or, at least, make an educated guess about it.

  1. Nouns ending with ‘-o’ are masculine.
  2. Nouns ending with ‘-a’ are mostly feminine.
    • Some exceptions: dia (day), drama (drama), clima (climate), cometa (comet), planeta (planet), mapa (map), fantasma (ghost), tema (theme), dilema (dilemma), problema (problem), lema (motto), esquema (schema), sistema (system), poema (poem), idioma (language), aroma (aroma), diploma (diploma), telegrama (telegram), chá (tea) and names of letters of the alphabet are all masculine.
  3. Nouns ending with ‘-m’ are mostly masculine.
    • Some exceptions: ordem (order), margem (margin), viagem (travel), ferrugem (rust), origem (origin), vertigem (vertigo) and bagagem (luggage).
  4. Nouns ending with ‘-n’ are mostly masculine.
  5. Nouns ending with ‘-ão’ are:
    • Masculine if concrete. Exception: mão (hand).
    • Feminine if abstract. Example: emoção (emotion).
  6. Nouns ending with ‘-r’ or ‘-l’ are mostly masculine.
    • Some exceptions: catedral (cathedral), moral (moral), flor (flower), dor (pain), cor (color), vogal (vowel), colher (spoon), inicial (initial) and capital (capital).
  7. Nouns ending with ‘-z’ are mostly masculine.
    • Some exceptions: paz (peace), cicatriz (scar), voz (voice), cruz (cross), luz (light), raiz (root), matriz (matrix), foz (mouth of a river) and those nouns ending with ‘-ez’ like timidez (shyness) and palidez (pallor).
  8. Nouns ending with ‘-s’ or ‘-x’ are mostly masculine.
  9. Nouns ending with ‘-ate’, ‘-ete’, ‘-ote’ or ‘-ite’ are mostly masculine.
    • Exceptions: scientific terms.
  10. Nouns ending with ‘-ude’ are:
    • masculine if concrete.
    • feminine if abstract.
  11. Nouns ending with ‘-arte’ are mostly masculine.
    • Some exceptions: arte (art) and parte (part).
  12. Nouns ending with ‘-ante’, ‘-ente’ or ‘-onte’ are mostly masculine.
    • Some exceptions: mente (mind), fonte (source), frente (front), ponte (bridge), lente (lens) and nouns referring to bodies of water.
  13. Are feminine the nouns ending with:
    • ‘-ade’, ‘-ude’, or ‘-ice’ if abstract.
    • ‘-ede’, ‘-ide’, ‘-ave’, ‘-ebe’ or  ‘-eve’. Exceptions: cabide (hanger).
    • ‘-ase’, ‘-asse’, ‘-ace’, ‘-es’, ‘-ece’, ‘-esse’ or ‘-ose’. Some exceptions: passe (pass) and interesse (interest).
    • ‘-ie’.
  14. Some nouns have masculine and feminine forms, but have different meanings.
    • Examples: a cabeça (the head, part of the body) x o cabeça (person in charge); a capital (the capital city) x o capital (money).

Do not memorize this list. Focus on items from 1 to 8, as the others are meant to support your learning process. Still, the best method to learn genders is and always will be reading (a lot!). Read as much as you can and your ability to recognize a noun’s gender will improve, I swear. Keep studying!

Go to the ‘Start here’ page here or move to the next topic here.

Best wishes on your journey learning Portuguese! 
Aimée

Verb to be – part 4 of 4

Take a few minutes to read the first three parts of this lesson here, here and here in case you haven’t yet.

We talked about how to use verb ‘estar’ to say emotions and conditions, also current activities and locations; and how to use verb ‘ser’ to describe things and talk about nationalities. At this moment, you are ready to be introduced to other interrogative words and use verb ‘ser’ and all its potential

WHAT AND WHICH

What and which are equivalent to ‘o que’ and ‘qual’ (almost always) respectively.

O que

  • Comes before a noun or a verb
  • Can NOT be used referring to people, only things
  • Wide or infinite options

O que é isso?
What is that?

O que são aquelas coisas amarelas?
What are those yellow things?

O que você está comendo?
What are you eating?

O que você quer?
What do you want?

Qual

  • Many times accompanies the verb ‘ser’
  • Can be used referring to people or things
  • Supposes a selection, choose an option among others
  • Can be followed by ‘dos’ (of the), ‘das’ (of the), ‘destes’ (of these), ‘destas’ (of these), ‘daqueles’ (of those), ‘daquelas’ (of those).

Qual é o seu nome?
What is your name?

Qual é o nome daquele filme?
What is the title of that movie?

Qual é a sua idade?
What is your age?

Qual das crianças é o seu filho?
Which of the children is your son?
*Alternative: Qual criança é o seu filho? Which child is your son?

Qual destas camisas é a mais bonita?
Which of these shirts is the most beautiful?
*Alternative: Qual camisa é a mais bonita? Which shirt is the most beautiful?

‘Qual’ can also be plural and the answer will be in the plural as well:

Quais dos países europeus são os seus favoritos?
Which of the european countries are you favorite?
*Alternative: Quais países europeus são os seus favoritos? Which european country is your favorite?

Quais daquelas bolsas são suas?
Which of those bags are yours?
*Alternative: Quais bolsas são suas? Which bags are yours?

WHO

Asking for someone’s identity:
[quem]>>[é]>>[noun + complement]

Quem é você?
Who are you?

Quem são aqueles homens?
Who are those men?

Quem são estas pessoas?
Who are these people?

Asking for the subject of a verb:
[quem]>>[verb]>>[noun + complement]

Quem está em casa?
Who is home?

Quem está comendo na cozinha?
Who is eating in the kitchen?

Quem cozinha tão bem assim?
Who cooks so well like this?

NOTE: I am avoiding verbs not discussed in these verb to be lessons, but is perfectly possible and correct to use this structures with different verbs and tenses. For example, ‘Quem fez essa comida deliciosa?‘, which means ‘Who cooked this delicious food?’.

Asking for the ownership
[de quem]>>[ser]>>[noun]

De quem é este carro?
Whose car is this?

De quem é a culpa?
Whose fault is it?

HOW MANY

[quantos]>>[noun]>>[verb]>>[complement is optional]

Quantos morangos?
How many strawberries?

Quantos alunos são meninas?
How many students are girls?

Quantos países são maiores que o Brasil?
How many countries are bigger than Brazil?

Quantas dessas histórias são verdadeiras?
How many of these stories are true?

Quantas destas frutas podemos levar?
How many of these fruits can we take?

NOTE: Besides ‘Qual é a sua idade?’, it’s possible to ask someone’s age saying ‘Quantos anos você tem’, that literally means ‘How many years do you have?’.

HOW MUCH

Asking for price:
[quanto]>>[ser]>>[noun]

Quanto é um quilo de arroz?
How much is one kilo of rice?
*Alternative: Quanto custa um quilo de arroz? How much does one kilo of rice cost?

Exclamation
[quanto/quanta]>>[noun]

Quanto pessimismo!
So much pessimism!

Quanta comida!
So much food!

Asking for quantity of uncountable things:
[quanto(s)/quanta(s)]>>[noun]>>[verb]>>[noun]

Quanto trabalho será necessário?
How much more work will be necessary?

Quantas tortas estão prontas?
How many pies are ready?

WHAT TIME IS IT?

Let’s talk about time. The logic here is very similar to English.
[ser]>>[number]>>[hora(s)]>>[e]>>[minuto(s)]

> Learn the numbers here <

Verb ‘ser’ agree in number with the hour digit
1:00 É uma hora. It’s one o’clock.
3:00 São três horas. It’s three o’clock.

Periods of day
06:00 São seis horas da manhã. It’s six in the morning.
16:00 São doze horas da tarde. (É meio-dia) It’s twelve in the afternoon. (It’s midday.)
19:00 São sete horas da noite. It’s seven in the night.
12:00 São doze horas da noite. (É meia-noite) It’s twelve in the night. (It’s midnight.)
01:00 É uma hora da manhã. It’s one in the morning.

Minutes
06:10
São seis horas e dez minutos. It’s six hours and ten minutes.
São seis e dez. It’s six ten.
06:15
São seis horas e quinze minutos. It’s six hours and fifteen minutes.
São seis e quinze. It’s six fifteen.
06:30
São seis horas e trinta minutos. It’s six hours and thirty minutes.
São seis e meia. It’s six thirty.
06:45
São seis horas e quarenta e cinco minutos. Its six hours and forty-five minutes.
São quinze para as sete. It’s fifteen to seven.

 

Hope you learned a lot and keep coming back for more!
See you.