Verb to be 1/4

Welcome to my VERB TO BE series!
The meanings included in the verb ‘to be’ is expressed in Portuguese by two independent verbs: ‘ser’ and ‘estar’. On the four posts about verb to be, a complete yet simple analysis of these verbs will be presented.

Topics of Verb to be 1/4:

Verb ‘estar’:
1) expressing current feeling/condition
2) present continuous.

If you are not familiar with personal pronouns and other basic Portuguese vocabulary, you can learn it here.

Shall we start? ūüôā


‘Estar’ is an irregular verb, therefore won’t follow the rules for regular verbs mentioned here.

Eu estou
I am
Tu est√°s
You are
Ele/Ela está (Você está)*
He/she/is (You are)*
Nós estamos
We are
Eles/Elas/Vocês estão
They/You(pl.) are

‘Estar’ is a descriptive verb and associated with temporary circumstances and states such as one’s mood or physical conditions; also locations and ongoing activities.

How are you?

Como você está?
Como – interrogative pronoun; how
Você Рyou (=tu)
Est√°¬†– 3rd person singular of ‘estar’ conjugated in the present tense

Observing the question structure, we have:
Question: [inter. pronoun]>>[noun]>>[estar]
The answer to this question will always be an adjective or equivalent. When you ask ‘como est√°?’ something, you are asking for the current status of it.
Answer: [noun]>>[estar]>>[adjective]
Eu estou doente.
I am sick.

Moving on to some…


Q. Como você está hoje?
How are you today?
A. Eu estou feliz hoje.
I am happy today.

Q. Como ele est√° ultimamente?
How is he lately?
A. Ele est√° preocupado com o comportamento do seu filho.
He is worried with his son’s behavior.

Q. Como vocês estão?
How are you (pl.)?
A. Nós estamos animados para a festa.
We are excited to the party.

Ela est√° afim de comer pizza.
She is in the mood for eating pizza.

O apartamento est√° em boas condi√ß√Ķes.
The apartment is in good conditions.

What are you doing?

The second use of this verb we are going to discuss is as a auxiliar verb in the present continuous structure.

What are you doing?
O que você está fazendo?
O que – interrogative pronoun (what)
Você Рyou (=tu)
Est√°¬†– 3rd person singular of ‘estar’ conjugated in the present tense
Fazendo – gerund form of the verb ‘fazer’ (=to do)

NOTE: The gerund of a verb goes like this:

  1. Verb in the infinitive;
  2. Replace the stem -ar, -er or -ir for -ando, -endo or -indo, respectively.
  3. Examples: falar >> falando; cantar >> cantando; comer >> comendo; beber >> bebendo; abrir >> abrindo; ouvir >> ouvindo.

Question: [inter. pronoun]>>[noun]>>[estar]>>[verb+ing]

O que você está comendo?
What are you eating?

O que eles est√£o comprando?
What are they buying?

The expected answers to these questions would be like this:
Answer: [estar]>>[verb+ing]>>[complement]

Eu estou comendo bolo.
I am eating cake.

Eles est√£o comprando roupas.
They are buying clothes

You can continue learning about verb to be HERE.

Best wishes on your journey learning Portuguese. 

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